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3D computer

What are 3D models?
A 3D model is a virtual layout of an object. Three-dimensional models are different:

For computer games.
Interior Design.
Architectural layout.
For 3D printer.
Layout of a part or working mechanism.
For films and cartoons.
Each model consists of a physical contour and a texture with effects stretched over it. The physical contour is pure geometry for grades 8–9; all objects have vertices, faces, and polygons. A polygon is a flat figure with several angles; models consist of such figures. From the polygons you can make the shape of any object. Textures and effects are the color and chiaroscuro, and also include the effects of fire, lightning, etc.

How are 3D models created?
The designer receives sketches, drawings, oil paintings, a finished model from papier-mâché and so on. This is called a reference. Based on the reference, a physical model is made, complexity depends on the necessary detail. From simple geometric shapes to complex mechanisms with hundreds of parts and their physical properties. There are many types of modeling:

Polygonal – all objects consist of polygons. The more of them, the better the contours are transmitted. This is the most popular type, it is used in computer games and not only.
Spline – models consist of lines (splines). When approaching, the quality is not lost; in the polygonal, sharp corners of the polygons will be visible.
NURBS is a subspecies of spline modeling. The object is built from curves (B-splines), which are connected by polygons.
Sculpting is a subspecies of polygonal modeling. All that is cut off from a certain figure. It looks like creating a clay sculpture.
Industrial – when creating objects, physical properties are prescribed. Such models are made up of shapes, not polygons.
Parametric – a type of simulation based on mathematical data. Ideal for creating the necessary mechanism details.
Superficial – to create a model, several surfaces will be connected, excess is cut off, bends are set after gluing.
Metaspheres – a type of simulation similar to polygons. Only instead of planar figures are spheres used that merge upon contact.
After the physical model is done, the textures are superimposed and the effects are registered, the scene needs to be rendered.

What is rendering?
Volumetric model rendering is visualization. The program has a scene with the prescribed values ​​of colors, shadows, surface type, size and shape. To see it on the screen, the program must combine all the data taking into account the viewing angle and take a “photo”. The process of these calculations is called rendering or rendering.

This process is very demanding on the system. Usually it is executed by the processor, but there are programs that allow you to transfer the calculations to the video card. Due to mining hysteria, graphics cards have become very expensive, so this way of rendering is faster, but more expensive. It is justified only when it is necessary to carry out very large calculations, but more on that later.
The most popular 3D modeling software TOP 10
Blender
This is the most popular program for working with 3D. She has a huge set of tools. Completely free and has the support of the Russian language. The only drawback is the complicated interface. Its application is universal, but it gained great popularity among owners of 3D printers.

Sketchup
Also a powerful tool with a large set of functions, there is also Russification. The great and mighty Google developed this miracle. There is a free version with limited capabilities that allows you to try your hand at no investment. The program is used by novice interior and furniture designers.

Solidworks
A universal program that has gained recognition as a tool for creating technical models. It is widely used in industry, on it you can draw mechanisms, parts, electrical wiring diagrams.

AutoCAD
This is by far the most popular program for industrial 3D modeling in the CIS. Developed by her Autodesk studio, she is also responsible for 3DS Max and Maya. AutoCAD is a powerful tool for industrial 3D modeling. Minimum restrictions and maximum opportunities for professionals. Of the advantages – a huge Russian-speaking community, where you can get answers to any questions.

Maya
Maya is an Autodesk product designed to create and complement movies and cartoons. Again, a huge Russian-speaking community with a lot of lessons.

3DS Max
Universal tool from Autodesk. Not sharpened for certain actions, but has a huge set of plugins with which you can do everything. Most often used to create interiors, furniture and game models. A larger knowledge base on 3D modeling than 3DS Max does not exist on the Internet.

Inventor
Another Autodesk product for mechanical engineering. This is a more specialized software than the same AutoCAD. And most importantly – the program can simulate the action of objects. That is, on AutoCAD you can only draw an engine, and in Inventor, you can also start it.

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