Goodbye personal computer?
In a large store of audio-video equipment, where he wandered for batteries, I watched the following picture. Three migrant workers from sunny Tajikistan (or Uzbekistan) were animatedly discussing a 17-inch…

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Is it possible to create thinking machines? Alan Turing: Between the Past and the Future of Computer Engineering
The second half of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century were marked by the heyday of information technology, which, beyond recognition, is changing our world. They change…

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How did Seymour Cray build supercomputers?
Elite customers bought the first supercomputers - the Atomic Energy Commission and the Weather Bureau. For three years, 63 CDC 6600 computers were sold, these computers worked in major US…

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How to get a Turing Award?

The most famous scientific award in the world is undoubtedly the Nobel Prize. It was founded by the famous industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel (Alfred Bernhard Nobel; 1833 – 1896). The prize has been awarded since 1901 for outstanding achievements in the field of natural sciences: physics, chemistry, biology or medicine.

Two more Nobel Prizes are awarded for achievements in the humanitarian fields: for achievements in the field of literature and for the efforts made in the fight against wars on the planet. Starting from 1969, at the same time with the five prizes listed, another one is awarded – for achievements in the field of economics. The money for the fund from which this premium is paid is allocated by the State Bank of Sweden. Therefore, the prize in economics is called not the Nobel Prize, but the Nobel Prize

The approval of another Nobel nomination was a precedent that allowed to expand the range of useful sciences and arts presented for the award of the most famous prize in the world. But the board of the Nobel Foundation decided not to add work to itself and “froze” the further increase in the number of nominations. However, the number of philanthropists who, like Nobel, wanted to contribute to the development of science and culture with their money, did not decrease. Therefore, at present, many fields of science and culture have their own prestigious awards, which are sometimes called analogues of the “Nobel Prize”. The award fund of these awards is sometimes greater than the Nobel Foundation. So, for scientists who have achieved great achievements in the field of computer science, the Turing Prize was established in 1966. The founder of this award was the oldest, most influential and largest international organization in the computer field – the Computer Engineering Association. The Turing Prize is sponsored by Google, with a premium fund of $ 1 million.

About Allan Turing (Alan Mathison Turing; 1912-1954) the feature film The Game of Imitation was shot. The film is interesting. He shouldn’t be interesting to him! Deciphering the code of the German encryption machine Enigma is perhaps the most fascinating episode in the life of A. Turing. And one of the few episodes of World War II, when millions of lives were saved not by force of arms, but by the power of logic and sharpness of mind. The prototype of the Enigma was an electromechanical encryption machine, invented in Germany in the early 1920s. The inventor intended to use such machines to encrypt banking correspondence. But very soon the military appreciated this invention and began to use similar devices to encrypt messages both at the operational level (battalion, regiment, division), and at the level of the General Staff. Actually, the encryption machine was an electric keyboard connected via an electrical patch panel to a disk block. The number of disks in the block was different for different models and varied from three to eight.

The electrical communication panel “mixed up” in a certain order the signals coming from the keyboard. Thanks to it, when a key is pressed, a signal is generated corresponding to a completely different key. This “wrong” signal was sent to encryption disks. The disk block provided complex permutations of the letters of the transmitted message. One disk made in a certain order pairwise permutation of all letters of the alphabet, the next one made another permutation, the next one more … What signal would appear at the output of the block of encryption disks with a known input signal could be determined only by knowing the relative positions of all disks. The correspondence table of the output and input signals was called the cipher key. The task of the decryptors was to determine the key.

Moreover, any change in the relative position of the encryption disks radically changed the key. As a result, all the decryption work already done should be started all over again. The Germans regularly changed the position of the disks. Immediately before the change, the correspondent was informed about this so that he too could correctly install the drives of his encryption machine. After that, secret correspondence could continue. Typically, the key was replaced at the beginning of the day. But sometimes the position of the disks was changed to transmit only one message. In general, they tried to transmit short messages, so that when intercepted into the hands of decoders, there would not be enough information for decryption. The “Cipher War” went hand in hand with real hostilities. With the outbreak of World War II, German submarines attempted to cut off the British Isles from allied countries and from the colonies. They drowned military and transport ships of Great Britain. Communication between bases and submarines was maintained using Enigma encryption machines. Thus, breaking German ciphers became a vital task for the British. A. Turing solved this problem. He developed an algorithm for enumerating options that allowed to decrypt intercepted encryption.

How to get a Turing Award?
The most famous scientific award in the world is undoubtedly the Nobel Prize. It was founded by the famous industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel (Alfred Bernhard Nobel; 1833 - 1896).…

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